Reporting their findings in a paper titled "Large-area and bright pulsed electroluminescence in monolayer semiconductors" published in Nature Communications, the researchers describe a three atoms thick device using a single metal-semiconductor contact as its source (instead of typically two contacts for hole and electron injection).
By laying a monolayer semiconductor such as MoS2, WS2, MoSe2, or WSe2 on an insulator (50nm thick SiO2) and placing electrodes on the monolayer and underneath the insulator, the researchers simplified device fabrication yet demonstrated efficient bipolar carrier injection and light emission using a simple AC voltage across the two-terminal device. All four monolayer materials yielded devices emitting light at different wavelengths corresponding to their respective electroluminescence.
As the authors explain in their paper, under a bipolar square wave voltage (-6V to +6V), alternating electron and hole populations are injected into the monolayer TMDC from the same source contact, with large tunnelling currents present at the source during the gate-voltage (Vg) transients, allowing for the modulation of both carrier densities. It is the excess electron and hole populations simultaneously present and their recombination during the AC transient that results in a pulsed light emission. The pulsed electroluminescence was observed at each Vg transition, with a full-width half-maximum of 8ns, and an intensity increasing linearly with frequency.